- Signal peptides: send a signal to cells to increase the production of collagen, elastin, proteoglycan, glycosaminoglycan (hyaluronic acid) and fibronectin.
- Carrier peptides: deliver trace elements such as copper and manganese, necessary for healing.
- Peptides that inhibit neurotransmitters: relax muscles, causing the reduction of fine lines and wrinkles.
- Enzyme inhibitor peptides: directly or indirectly inhibit enzymes, unfortunately there are few or no in vivo studies on these peptides.
The peptides used:
- Acetyl tetrapeptide 2
A four amino acid peptide believed to mimic the youthful hormone called thymopoietin. It works by compensating for the loss of thymic factors that comes with age and is believed to stimulate the skin's immune defenses and help skin regenerate. (Thymulen™ 4 BG by Lucas Meyer). This peptide can also strengthen the natural elements that help maintain collagen levels and elastin fibers properly assembled, to fight against lack of firmness. (Uplevity™ peptide solution from Lipotec) In other words, it maintains the integrity of the skin's structure, increases and ensures the quality of collagen fibers.
- Trifluoroacetyl tripeptide 2
A biomimetic peptide (= taking inspiration from nature to innovate) of 3 amino acids which has a unique mechanism of action (Lucas Meyer's Progeline), it inhibits the production of progerin, a protein that accelerates cellular aging. In their in-vivo tests (performed on real people), they discovered that at 2%, this peptide improves skin elasticity and firmness by approximately 20% in 28 days. It clinically reduces the signs of aging: sagging and wrinkles, improves firmness, elasticity of the jawline for a complete remodeling effect.
- Palmitoyl Tripeptide-1
Palmitoyl tripeptide-1, also called GHK (glycine-histidine-lysine amino sequence) attached to palmitic acid (a fatty acid) to increase oil solubility and thereby skin penetration. This peptide increases the production of collagen and glycosaminoglycans (= hyaluronic acid), wrinkles are then reduced. In a study of 15 women, a cream containing palmitoyl tripeptide-1 was applied twice daily for four weeks, resulting in significant reductions in the length, depth and skin roughness of wrinkles.
- Matrixyl 3000 (Palmitoyl Tripeptide-1 & Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-7)
Matrixyl 3000 combines Palmitoyl Tripeptide-1 with tetrapeptide pal-GQPR to form a so-called synergistic duo to reduce wrinkles and provide younger looking skin. According to the in vivo test (performed on real people) by Sederma (manufacturer), application of Matrixyl 3000 at 3% twice daily for 2 months resulted in:
- 39.4% reduction in the area occupied by deep wrinkles
- 32.9% reduction in main wrinkle density
- 19.9% reduction in the average depth of major wrinkles
- 16% improvement in roughness
- 16.2% lifting effect
- 5.5% improvement in elasticity
- 15.5% improvement in skin tone
- Copper peptide:
The copper peptide, in the copper tripeptide-1 form, takes up the following amino sequence: glycine-histidine-lysine with copper. It is therefore a peptide that is both a signal and a copper transporter. It is one of the most studied peptides. It stimulates the production of collagen, elastin, proteoglycan, glycosaminoglycan (hyaluronic acid) and several placebo-controlled clinical trials have confirmed its effects. A study has also compared the increase in collagen production induced by copper peptide,
vitamin C and tretinoin. The results were as follows: After one month, Cu-GHK increased collagen in 70% of those treated, compared to 50% treated with vitamin C and 40% treated with retinoic acid. Copper peptide may also promote skin regeneration, healing and repair. In conclusion, here are all the effects of copper peptide: it improves appearance, firmness, elasticity, skin thickness, wrinkles and complexion by strengthening the skin barrier.
New less studied form: Bis (Tripeptide-1) Copper Acetate
Acetylhexapeptide-8 (Argireline®) is a peptide having the amino sequence Acetyl-GluGlu-Met-Gln-Arg-Arg-NH2. It is a neurotransmitter inhibitor peptide, it relaxes facial muscles to reduce expression lines. In a placebo-controlled study of 10 women, 10% acetylhexapeptide-8 for 30 days applied twice daily resulted in a 30% improvement in eye wrinkles.
- Matrixyl morphomics:
Matrixyl morphomics, a new matrixyl, (INCI: N-Prolyl Palmitoyl Tripeptide-56 Acetate), a new lipopeptide that would restore the connections between the cell nucleus and the extracellular matrix; a rather unique mechanism of action that allows a reduction in vertical wrinkles, specifically nasolabial folds and frown lines, after only 6 weeks.
- X-50 Antiaging Infinitec:
X50® Anti-Aging (Copper Palmitoyl Heptapeptide-14) uses 'cosmetic drone' technology, a technique of encapsulating the active ingredient to deliver it directly to key cells to stimulate the synthesis of collagen and other extracellular matrix fibers . The exterior of the capsule is made of an intelligent dual-action ligand: it recognizes fibroblasts and increases elastin synthesis. Thanks to the high penetration and selectivity of this cosmetic drone, a visible reduction of wrinkles is achieved in just 28 days of treatment. This technology allows peptides to work even at very low doses of 0.001%.
- X50 hyalufiller Infinitec:
X50® hyalufiller (Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-50) uses 'cosmetic drone' technology, a technique for encapsulating the active ingredient to deliver it directly to key cells and fill in wrinkles by increasing the synthesis of hyaluronic acid. The exterior of the capsule is made of an intelligent dual-action ligand: it recognizes fibroblasts and increases elastin synthesis for more firmness.
The goal: to achieve the same effects as an injection of hyaluronic acid. X50® Hyalufiller fills in wrinkles between 70% and 80% in 14 days, at very low doses (0.001%) and without injections.
- Myristoyl Nonapeptide-3:
A new peptide with the promise of mimicking the effects of retinol: activating cell renewal and increasing collagen synthesis without its side effects: without irritation or tingling.
- Topical Peptide Treatments with Effective Anti-Aging Results, Cosmetics 2017
- Anti-aging activity of the ghk peptide - the skin and beyond, Journal of Aging Research & Clinical Practice; Volume 1, Number 1, 2012
- Effects of topical creams containing vitamin C, a copper-binding peptide cream and melatonin compared with tretinoin on the ultrastructure of normal skin— A pilot clinical, histologic, and ultrastructural study Journal: Disease Management and Clinical Outcomes., 1998
- Role of topical peptides in preventing or treating aged skin, International journal of cosmetic science, 2009
- A new matrikine-derived peptide up-regulates longevity genes for improving extracellular matrix architecture and connections of dermal cell with its matrix, International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 2020
- New Cosmetic or Dermopharmaceutical Topical Use of a Mixture of a Ghk Tripeptide and Gqpr Tetrapeptide, patent: WO2012164488A2
- A synthetic hexapeptide (Argireline) with antiwrinkle activity, International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 2002
- GHK Peptide as a Natural Modulator of Multiple Cellular Pathways in Skin Regeneration. BioMed Research International, 2015