Hyaluronic acid is a reference ingredient in aesthetic medicine. It is naturally present in the skin and plays a role in maintaining the skin's hydration, elasticity and structure. It is an essential polysaccharide in cosmetics because its structure allows it to attract many water molecules that promote skin hydration. In the list of ingredients, we rarely find hyaluronic acid (INCI: hyaluronic acid) but rather the salt of hyaluronic acid (INCI: sodium hyaluronate). In cosmetics, the two names are interchangeable: they have the same properties, an almost similar structure but the salt form is more stable which facilitates the formulation.
Today, we are even able to modify the structure of hyaluronic acid to improve its performance and provide different properties.
In the multi-action serum, we find:
- A classic high molecular weight hyaluronic acid that retains water on the surface of the skin, it is an excellent surface moisturizer and can act as an osmotic pump helping water-soluble actives to better penetrate the skin.
- A cross-linked hyaluronic acid, which means that several hyaluronic acids are chemically linked together to create a large mesh, a larger structure with an even greater water retention capacity. This cross-linked hyaluronic acid forms a protective film on the surface of the skin to reduce water loss to keep the skin hydrated and protected and continuously delivers the absorbed water, so it provides long-term moisturizing benefits.
- A hyaluronic acid on which some alcohol groups have been replaced by acetyl groups to give it a better affinity with water and have a better hydration with longer duration. This improves adhesion and also helps repair the skin barrier.
- Pilot Comparative Study of the Topical Action of a Novel, Crosslinked Resilient Hyaluronic Acid on Skin Hydration and Barrier Function in a Dynamic, ThreeDimensional Human Explant Model, Journal of Drugs in Dermatology, 2016 April
- Research Article Acetylated Hyaluronic Acid: Enhanced Bioavailability and Biologica Studies, BioMed Research International 2014
- The anti-wrinkles properties of sodium acetylated hyaluronate, Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, 2021
Salicylic acid is a chemical exfoliant, that is to say, it eliminates excess sebum and excess dead cells on the surface of the skin by dissolving the lipid cement that binds the cells together. This allows you to find more radiant skin, tighter pores and to avoid imperfections. Salicylic acid works from 0.5% and it is allowed in Europe at a percentage of 2%.
Salicylic acid is part of the family of hydroxy acids. This family includes alpha hydroxylated acids which are abbreviated as AHA , such as glycolic acid or lactic acid and beta hydroxylated acid, BHA , which is salicylic acid. The prefix alpha or beta only denotes the position of the hydroxyl group –OH with respect to the carboxyl group –COOH in the molecule.
Salicylic acid also differs from AHAs in several other ways:
- Unlike AHAs which are soluble in water, BHA is lipophilic, that is to say soluble in oil, which gives it a better ability to penetrate directly into the pores of the skin to decongest them. It is the perfect asset to avoid imperfections.
- Being from the same family as aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), salicylic acid also has anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties which makes it ideal for acne-prone skin.
- Unlike AHAs which need an acid pH around 3.5 to function, salicylic acid is able to function at physiological pH, that is to say at the pH of the skin (between 4.5 and 5.5) which decreases potential irritation during use.
- Unlike AHAs which are photosensitive, that is to say which make the skin more sensitive to the sun and this from the first use and for several days. Salicylic acid is not and would even be photoprotective.
In summary :
Salicylic acid is an excellent exfoliating agent with anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties, perfect for oily skin and/or skin with inflammation, enlarged pores, blackheads or whiteheads.
- Final Opinion on salicylic acid, SCCS, December 2018
- Exfoliation for sensitive skin with neutralized salicylic acid? International journal of cosmetic science, Volume 31, Issue 3, Pages 243-244, June 2009
- Stratum Corneum Exfoliation Effect with Hydroxy Acid according pH, Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea, Volume 42 Issue 4, Pages 413-420, 2016
- Applications of hydroxy acids: classification, mechanisms, and photoactivity, Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology, 2010
- The Effects of Topically Applied Glycolic Acid and Salicylic Acid on Ultraviolet RadiationInduced Erythema, DNA Damage and Sunburn Cell Formation in Human Skin, Journal of Dermatological Science, 2009 July
Tranexamic acid is an active ingredient with a depigmenting and anti-inflammatory function. This is why this acid is just as much in demand for the treatment against acne as it is for the whitening of dark spots.
It will lighten the marks that acne or the sun have left on your skin.
Indeed, its role as a depigmenting agent hinders the synthesis of melanin and operates at the source of the problem to allow you to fight against hyperpigmentation.
This acid, through its whitening action, also radically reduces your dark spots caused by the sun or by skin aging. And this, even on stubborn stains as is the case with the pregnancy mask. Thanks to this, your complexion is unified and radiant.
In summary, tranexamic acid is one of the most powerful cosmetic active ingredients to whiten your dark spots, reduce your acne scars and brighten your complexion.
- Moisturizes the skin
- Soothes the skin
Alpha and beta glucan
- Hydrates and soothes the skin
- Strengthens the skin barrier
- Soothe and reduce inflammation of the skin.
- fight against the harmful effects of the sun on the acceleration of skin ageing.
- Considered one of the most effective lightening agents on the xosme market today, Alpha-Arbutin (a derivative of hydroquinone) helps even skin tone by inhibiting tyrosinase – a key element in melanin production.
- Fades dark spots
- Soothes the skin
ALPHA AND BETA GLUCAN
- Hydrates and soothes the skin
- Strengthens the skin barrier
- Decongests and drains to reduce the presence of puffiness
- Stimulates blood circulation to reduce blue circles (vascular)
- Soothes the skin
- Strengthens the skin barrier to hydrate and soothe
ACTIVE COMPLEX BASED ON SIGNAL PEPTIDES
- Reduces wrinkles
- Improves elasticity
- Improves firmness
A peptide is a compound made up of a sequence of amino acids. There are thus many combinations and therefore many peptides. This is why this product contains several with different modes of action on the skin to best target the signs of aging.
- Hydrates and plumps the skin
- Strengthens the skin barrier
- Reduction of redness
CENTELLA ASIATICA EXTRACT
- Hydrates: stimulates the glycosaminoglycans (polysaccharides) which are part of the extra cellular matrix (= liquid substance between our skin cells) of which hyaluronic acid is a part
- Wound healing: increases collagen synthesis, as well as the proliferation and migration of fibroblasts and accelerates re-epithelialization which are important processes in wound healing
- Anti-ageing: the increase in collagen synthesis also makes it effective on wrinkles, especially since centella asiatica has antioxidant activity.
- Centella asiatica in dermatology: an overview, Phytotherapy research, 2014
- Moisturizing and Antiinflammatory Properties of Cosmetic Formulations Containing Centella asiatica Extract, Indian Journal of Pharmacology Science, 2016
ROSEMARY LEAF EXTRACT
ROSA CENTIFOLIA EXTRACT
- Contains polyphenols which are antioxidants to soothe and reduce skin inflammation
- Protects against UVA and UVB rays emitted by the sun
- Certainly one of the most effective and best tolerated moisturizing and protective active ingredients
FERMENTED VEGETABLE OILS
- Moisturize and strengthen the skin barrier
- Moisturizes and repairs the skin barrier: vitamin B3 increases the synthesis of free fatty acids, cholesterol and ceramides in the skin which results in a healthier and stronger skin barrier.
- Unifies the complexion and reduces brown spots, vitamin B3 effectively acts as a depigmenting active ingredient by inhibiting the transfer of melanosomes, vesicles carrying melanin. Vitamin B3 has a different mode of operation from other depigmenting active ingredients. Studies show that 2-5% niacinamide used daily for 8 weeks results in significant lightening of hyperpigmentation. When vitamin B3 is combined with acetyl glucosamine, the results are even better.
- Diminishes wrinkles: Studies show that niacinamide can stimulate collagen production for firmer skin with fewer wrinkles. Anti-aging studies typically use 4-5% niacinamide for 8-12 weeks
- Regulates sebum production and has an anti-inflammatory effect: in one study, 82% of people who used 4% niacinamide for 8 weeks had an improvement in their acne.
- Nicotinamide increases biosynthesis of ceramides as well as other stratum corneum lipids to improve the epidermal permeability barrier, Journal of Dermatology, 2000
- Nicotinic acid/niacinamide and the skin, Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, 2004
- Topical niacinamide reduces yellowing, wrinkling, red blotchiness, and hyperpigmented spots in aging facial skin, International Journal of cosmetic science, 2004
- A Double-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial of Niacinamide 4% versus Hydroquinone 4% in the Treatment of Melasma, Dermatology Research and Practice, 2011
- The role of nicotinamide in acne treatment, Dermatologic Therapy, 2017
PANTHENOL (Pro vitamin B5)
- Hydrates and repairs the skin barrier: this activity can be linked to its affinity with water and its ability to retain it. It is this moisturizing effect that seems to be linked to its ability to regenerate the epidermal barrier. As the different layers of the skin undergo continuous renewal, moisturizers provide an environment that promotes the physiological processes necessary to maintain or restore skin barrier function. It has also been suggested that dexpanthenol promotes epidermal regeneration by improving epidermal differentiation and lipid synthesis. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled study in a total of 60 people, dexpanthenol in a 2.5% cosmetic formula improved stratum corneum hydration and reduced water loss over 7 days compared to placebo.
- Reduces irritation: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 25 people demonstrated the effectiveness of dexpanthenol in protecting the skin against irritation. The volunteers applied SLS (sodium lauryl sulphate, a potentially irritating surfactant) at 2% then an ointment containing 5% dexpanthenol and the hydration of the stratum corneum remained essentially stable on the areas treated with dexpanthenol whereas on the areas treated with placebo there was a decrease in skin hydration. Dexpanthenol by preserving good hydration of the stratum corneum allows under the influence of an irritating agent to reduce feelings of irritation.
- Wound healing: the beneficial effect of dexpanthenol on wound healing would be due to an increase in fibroblasts and accelerated epithelialisation which are two important processes for wound healing.
Note: Panthenol has two enantiomers: D and L. Enantiomers are identical structures, image of each other in a plane mirror, but are not superimposable. Only D-panthenol (dexpanthenol) is biologically active.
- Topical use of dexpanthenol: a 70th anniversary article, Journal of dermatology Treatment, 2017
- Effect of topically applied dexpanthenol on epidermal barrier function and stratum corneum hydration. Results of a human in vivo study. Arzneimittelforschung. 2000
- Efficacy of dexpanthenol in skin protection against irritation: a double-blind, pla- 51. cebo-controlled study. Contact Dermatitis. 2003
- Signal peptides: send a signal to cells to increase the production of collagen, elastin, proteoglycan, glycosaminoglycan (hyaluronic acid) and fibronectin.
- Carrier peptides: deliver trace elements such as copper and manganese, necessary for healing.
- Peptides that inhibit neurotransmitters: relax muscles, causing the reduction of fine lines and wrinkles.
- Enzyme inhibitor peptides: directly or indirectly inhibit enzymes, unfortunately there are few or no in vivo studies on these peptides.
The peptides used:
- Acetyl tetrapeptide 2
A four amino acid peptide believed to mimic the youthful hormone called thymopoietin. It works by compensating for the loss of thymic factors that comes with age and is believed to stimulate the skin's immune defenses and help skin regenerate. (Thymulen™ 4 BG by Lucas Meyer). This peptide can also strengthen the natural elements that help maintain collagen levels and elastin fibers properly assembled, to fight against lack of firmness. (Uplevity™ peptide solution from Lipotec) In other words, it maintains the integrity of the skin's structure, increases and ensures the quality of collagen fibers.
- Trifluoroacetyl tripeptide 2
A biomimetic peptide (= taking inspiration from nature to innovate) of 3 amino acids which has a unique mechanism of action (Lucas Meyer's Progeline), it inhibits the production of progerin, a protein that accelerates cellular aging. In their in-vivo tests (performed on real people), they discovered that at 2%, this peptide improves skin elasticity and firmness by approximately 20% in 28 days. It clinically reduces the signs of aging: sagging and wrinkles, improves firmness, elasticity of the jawline for a complete remodeling effect.
- Palmitoyl Tripeptide-1
Palmitoyl tripeptide-1, also called GHK (glycine-histidine-lysine amino sequence) attached to palmitic acid (a fatty acid) to increase oil solubility and thereby skin penetration. This peptide increases the production of collagen and glycosaminoglycans (= hyaluronic acid), wrinkles are then reduced. In a study of 15 women, a cream containing palmitoyl tripeptide-1 was applied twice daily for four weeks, resulting in significant reductions in the length, depth and skin roughness of wrinkles.
- Matrixyl 3000 (Palmitoyl Tripeptide-1 & Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-7)
Matrixyl 3000 combines Palmitoyl Tripeptide-1 with tetrapeptide pal-GQPR to form a so-called synergistic duo to reduce wrinkles and provide younger looking skin. According to the in vivo test (performed on real people) by Sederma (manufacturer), application of Matrixyl 3000 at 3% twice daily for 2 months resulted in:
- 39.4% reduction in the area occupied by deep wrinkles
- 32.9% reduction in main wrinkle density
- 19.9% reduction in the average depth of major wrinkles
- 16% improvement in roughness
- 16.2% lifting effect
- 5.5% improvement in elasticity
- 15.5% improvement in skin tone
- Copper peptide:
The copper peptide, in the copper tripeptide-1 form, takes up the following amino sequence: glycine-histidine-lysine with copper. It is therefore a peptide that is both a signal and a copper transporter. It is one of the most studied peptides. It stimulates the production of collagen, elastin, proteoglycan, glycosaminoglycan (hyaluronic acid) and several placebo-controlled clinical trials have confirmed its effects. A study has also compared the increase in collagen production induced by copper peptide,
vitamin C and tretinoin. The results were as follows: After one month, Cu-GHK increased collagen in 70% of those treated, compared to 50% treated with vitamin C and 40% treated with retinoic acid. Copper peptide may also promote skin regeneration, healing and repair. In conclusion, here are all the effects of copper peptide: it improves appearance, firmness, elasticity, skin thickness, wrinkles and complexion by strengthening the skin barrier.
New less studied form: Bis (Tripeptide-1) Copper Acetate
Acetylhexapeptide-8 (Argireline®) is a peptide having the amino sequence Acetyl-GluGlu-Met-Gln-Arg-Arg-NH2. It is a neurotransmitter inhibitor peptide, it relaxes facial muscles to reduce expression lines. In a placebo-controlled study of 10 women, 10% acetylhexapeptide-8 for 30 days applied twice daily resulted in a 30% improvement in eye wrinkles.
- Matrixyl morphomics:
Matrixyl morphomics, a new matrixyl, (INCI: N-Prolyl Palmitoyl Tripeptide-56 Acetate), a new lipopeptide that would restore the connections between the cell nucleus and the extracellular matrix; a rather unique mechanism of action that allows a reduction in vertical wrinkles, specifically nasolabial folds and frown lines, after only 6 weeks.
- X-50 Antiaging Infinitec:
X50® Anti-Aging (Copper Palmitoyl Heptapeptide-14) uses 'cosmetic drone' technology, a technique of encapsulating the active ingredient to deliver it directly to key cells to stimulate the synthesis of collagen and other extracellular matrix fibers . The exterior of the capsule is made of an intelligent dual-action ligand: it recognizes fibroblasts and increases elastin synthesis. Thanks to the high penetration and selectivity of this cosmetic drone, a visible reduction of wrinkles is achieved in just 28 days of treatment. This technology allows peptides to work even at very low doses of 0.001%.
- X50 hyalufiller Infinitec:
X50® hyalufiller (Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-50) uses 'cosmetic drone' technology, a technique for encapsulating the active ingredient to deliver it directly to key cells and fill in wrinkles by increasing the synthesis of hyaluronic acid. The exterior of the capsule is made of an intelligent dual-action ligand: it recognizes fibroblasts and increases elastin synthesis for more firmness.
The goal: to achieve the same effects as an injection of hyaluronic acid. X50® Hyalufiller fills in wrinkles between 70% and 80% in 14 days, at very low doses (0.001%) and without injections.
- Myristoyl Nonapeptide-3:
A new peptide with the promise of mimicking the effects of retinol: activating cell renewal and increasing collagen synthesis without its side effects: without irritation or tingling.
- Topical Peptide Treatments with Effective Anti-Aging Results, Cosmetics 2017
- Anti-aging activity of the ghk peptide - the skin and beyond, Journal of Aging Research & Clinical Practice; Volume 1, Number 1, 2012
- Effects of topical creams containing vitamin C, a copper-binding peptide cream and melatonin compared with tretinoin on the ultrastructure of normal skin— A pilot clinical, histologic, and ultrastructural study Journal: Disease Management and Clinical Outcomes., 1998
- Role of topical peptides in preventing or treating aged skin, International journal of cosmetic science, 2009
- A new matrikine-derived peptide up-regulates longevity genes for improving extracellular matrix architecture and connections of dermal cell with its matrix, International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 2020
- New Cosmetic or Dermopharmaceutical Topical Use of a Mixture of a Ghk Tripeptide and Gqpr Tetrapeptide, patent: WO2012164488A2
- A synthetic hexapeptide (Argireline) with antiwrinkle activity, International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 2002
- GHK Peptide as a Natural Modulator of Multiple Cellular Pathways in Skin Regeneration. BioMed Research International, 2015
- Preserves the microbiota
- Maintain the balance of the skin microbiome by nourishing our natural probiotics on the surface of our skin.
Retinol (vitamin A) is the superstar active ingredient in cosmetics with efficacy proven by various clinical studies:
- Preserves the collagen present by inhibiting the destructive enzymes matrix metalloproteinases (MMP, which are increased by UVB) and stimulates the production of collagen in the skin for firmer skin as well as those of other important elements of the skin, eg. glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), natural moisturizing factors, or filaggrin for younger looking skin.
- Activates cell renewal: dead cells are replaced with new cells for brighter looking skin
Anti stain properties:
Retinol also reduces dark spots by blocking the transfer of melanin to epidermal cells and by reducing the activity of melanocytes as well as accelerating cell renewal.
Anti acne properties:
Retinol also has an anti-acne effect by reducing the size and secretion of the sebaceous glands and by activating cell renewal.
Retinol is used in cosmetics at percentages between 0.01 to 1%. There are no restrictions on its use but higher percentages will not be authorized by toxicologists, the SCCS recommends a % of 0.3% in order not to exceed the maximum daily dose of vitamin A because it has side effects if this dose is exceeded.
Retinol is part of the retinoid family comprising the following forms:
Only the forms: retinol esters, retinol and retinal are authorized in cosmetics. Retinal is more difficult to formulate and therefore more rarely used. Retinol to work in the skin must convert to retinal and then to retinoic acid. It is only retinoic acid that has the beneficial effects. The more there are conversions, the more the effectiveness for the skin is reduced but the irritating effects are also. Retinol is recommended for use in the evening because it is not very stable against light and heat, which is why it is necessary to have airless packaging.
Note: Retinyl palmitate is an antioxidant widely used to protect a cosmetic formula from oxidation and also to support UV filters in sunscreen products.
- Retinoids in the treatment of skin aging: An overview of clinical efficacy and safety, Clinical Interventions in Aging, 2006
- Retinoids: active molecules influencing skin structure formation in cosmetic and dermatological treatments, Advances in Dermatology and Allergology, 2019
- A comparative study of the effects of retinol and retinoic acid on histological, molecular, and clinical properties of human skin, Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, 2016
Reduces the depth of wrinkles, improves skin firmness.
- Antioxidants (anti aging)
A property that can be interesting for acne-prone skin.
- Green tea in dermatology – myths and facts, Journal Der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Volume 13 (8)– Aug 1, 2015
- Protective Mechanisms of Green Tea Polyphenols in Skin, Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2012
VITAMIN C (and its derivatives)
- Antioxidant properties
- Anti-aging properties
Clinical studies carried out on % between 5 and 10%.
- Anti-stain properties
Vitamin C problems:
- Its stability: vitamin C can oxidize very quickly, which can reduce its effectiveness
- Its penetration: since vitamin C is water-soluble, it has difficulty penetrating into the skin.
- Its irritant nature: to overcome the two problems above, one of the solutions is to lower the pH to a pH of around 3.5, which can be irritating for certain skin types.
- ascorbyl tetraisopalmitate
- ascorbyl glucoside: stable and easy to formulate, in vitro studies show that it can penetrate the skin and is then converted into pure vitamin C. It also exhibits the three anti-aging benefits of pure vitamin C: antioxidant protection, collagen strengthening and reduction of hyperpigmentation which has been tested in vivo. Ascorbyl glucoside is typically used in 2-5% concentrations when the goal is to brighten dull skin and fade the appearance of hyperpigmentation.
- ethyl ascorbic acid: stable and penetrates the skin. According to the supplier, EAC is metabolized in the skin to pure ascorbic acid and they also claim that EAC seems to have both an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect, and may be able to stimulate the production of collagen skin. The strong point of the EAC however is the lightening of the skin. In addition to the manufacturer's claims, there is also in vivo clinical data (tested on real people) showing that 2% EAC can improve skin tone.
- Stability, transdermal penetration, and cutaneous effects of ascorbic acid and its derivatives, Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, 2012
- Assessment of penetration of Ascorbyl Tetraisopalmitate into biological membranes by molecular dynamics, Computers in Biology and Medicine, Volume 75, 2016