Tranexamic acid is a synthetic amino acid derived from lysine that has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. It reduces pigment spots and hyperpigmentation of the skin by inhibiting melanin production.

Melanin production is regulated by the enzyme tyrosinase, which converts tyrosine into dopa quinone, which is then transformed into melanin. Tranexamic acid works by inhibiting the production of melanin by blocking the binding of plasmin to the receptor for the amino acid lysine, which is necessary for the activation of tyrosinase.

By blocking the production of melanin, tranexamic acid can reduce age spots and hyperpigmentation of the skin. Tranexamic acid also reduces inflammation and oxidation in the skin, which helps improve the appearance of the skin.

Several studies have evaluated the effectiveness of tranexamic acid in the treatment of hyperpigmentation and age spots. A study showed that topical application of a cream containing tranexamic acid resulted in a significant reduction in pigmentation in patients with melasma, compared to a placebo. Another study showed that tranexamic acid can also reduce ultraviolet (UV) induced hyperpigmentation in mice.

In conclusion, tranexamic acid is an effective ingredient in anti-aging skincare to reduce age spots and hyperpigmentation of the skin. By inhibiting the production of melanin, tranexamic acid improves the appearance of the skin and gives it a more even complexion. However, it is important to note that tranexamic acid should be used with caution in people with lysine hypersensitivity or very sensitive skin.